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Simulate ferromagnetic hysteresis with realistic demands on resource, material data and with good approximation to physical behaviour with the Hysteresis material model.

Ferromagnetic hysteresis is important in many areas of electrical engineering design both as a useful and also as an unwanted phenomenon. The ability to model hysteresis can be used for example to minimize hysteresis losses in transformers and electrical machines.


In the Opera-3d suite a semi-empirical method for modelling hysteresis has been developed alongside industrial partners. The magnetic behaviour is considered as a trajectory B(H). The trajectory is based on a measured major symmetric loop that is supplied by the user. This data may be easily obtained from measurements or published data-sheets, and imported into Opera as a magnetic characteristic table.


The Opera hysteresis model includes the issues of nested minor loops and 'wiping out' of minor loops, which occurs when the trajectory goes through an earlier turning point. Moreover, the model recognises oscillating fields and minimises the storage of turning points.


Transition to saturation is treated automatically, allowing the simulation to overcome any limitations in the user's data.


Hysteretic material models are available in all Opera-3d transient electromagnetic simulations - dynamics, rotating and linear motion and demagnetisation.


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